今日主題:Domesticated Pigs Kept Oinking with Wild (and Crazy) Boars  家豬和野生豬在哼哼的交流呢~

洪欣老師推薦:托福聽力最好的課外教材:60-Second Science

1. 先聽兩三遍 (不看文稿)
2. 再一句一句聽寫 (每句都要聽寫數遍,直到寫出85%以上的字)
3. 最後check文稿,看哪聽不出來,單字沒背過,還是發音不熟。
4. 堅持天天聽,就能每天進步哦。

MP3音檔 (按右鍵可下載聽):喜歡的同學,幫忙推或按讚哦~~


The standard story told about domesticating wild animals goes something like this: humans selected individuals with a desired trait—docility, for example—and bred those animals together to produce offspring even more docile than their parents. Eventually the breeders created a genetic bottleneck that separated domestic animals from their wild relatives. And they brought their livestock along as they spread across Europe and Asia.

But now a group of scientists has demonstrated that the story is far too tidy—at least when it comes to pigs.

Pigs were domesticated from wild boar at least twice, in Anatolia in present day Turkey and in the Mekong Valley in China, both about 9,000 years ago. They arrived in Europe about 7,500 years ago.

For this study, researchers focused on European pigs. They evaluated more than 600 genomes from European and Asian wild boars and domesticated pigs. And they found that, in Europe, the story of a bottleneck separating domestic from wild animals does not fit the genetic data.

Rather, the model that does fit indicates that there was a frequent flow of genes from wild European boars into the domestic population. In other words, boars and pigs kept finding ways to get together. The most likely scenario for the development of the modern pig genome includes gene flow from some species of European wild boars that are now extinct. But their genes live on, on the farm. The research is in the journal Nature Genetics.
不如這樣說,吻合的模型表明有一股基因流頻繁從歐洲的野生豬進入到家養的豬群中。換句話說,野豬和家豬之間一直在尋找保持一致的方法。對於現在豬基因組發 展最有可能的情景一些已經現在野生豬身上已經消失的基因組流傳如了家豬的體內。不過他們的基因在農場種保留了下來。該研究結果發表在《自然遺傳學》雜誌 上。

The authors hope this study will prompt the use of genetics to evaluate the domestication history for other species, including dogs and horses. They say the incorporation of contemporary and ancient DNA into these modeling scenarios will help elucidate the timing of the domestication of plants and animals and, “ultimately substantially enhance knowledge of this fascinating evolutionary process.”
作者希望這項研究能夠促進使用遺傳資料來測評其他物種的馴化歷史,例如狗和貓。研究者稱在建模情景中包含現在和古代的DNA 會有助於闡明植物和動物的馴化時間,“最終大量增加這些吸引人的進化過程的知識。”


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