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今日主題:Domesticated Pigs Kept Oinking with Wild (and Crazy) Boars  家豬和野生豬在哼哼的交流呢~

洪欣老師推薦:托福聽力最好的課外教材:60-Second Science
康康精選托福會考的主題,堅持每天精聽一定會進步的哦!!

建議方法:
1. 先聽兩三遍 (不看文稿)
2. 再一句一句聽寫 (每句都要聽寫數遍,直到寫出85%以上的字)
3. 最後check文稿,看哪聽不出來,單字沒背過,還是發音不熟。
4. 堅持天天聽,就能每天進步哦。

MP3音檔 (按右鍵可下載聽):喜歡的同學,幫忙推或按讚哦~~
http://online1.tingclass.net/voaspe/…/20150925sa_science.mp3

只有音檔怎夠,聽不懂地方,不用怕,康康幫你準備好中英文稿了:

中英文稿:
The standard story told about domesticating wild animals goes something like this: humans selected individuals with a desired trait—docility, for example—and bred those animals together to produce offspring even more docile than their parents. Eventually the breeders created a genetic bottleneck that separated domestic animals from their wild relatives. And they brought their livestock along as they spread across Europe and Asia.
關於馴化野生動物的標準說法是這樣子的:人類選擇了具備所需特徵的個體——例如,溫順——然後這些動物飼養在一起,以繁殖出比父母更加溫順的後代。最終這些飼養人員就造成了遺傳瓶頸,把馴化的動物和野生動物區分開來。然後他們帶著這些牲畜一起遷徙到了歐洲和亞洲。

But now a group of scientists has demonstrated that the story is far too tidy—at least when it comes to pigs.
但是現在一批科學家們指出這個理論不太準確——至少在小豬方面。

Pigs were domesticated from wild boar at least twice, in Anatolia in present day Turkey and in the Mekong Valley in China, both about 9,000 years ago. They arrived in Europe about 7,500 years ago.
現在的豬至少經過兩次馴化,一次是在土耳其現在的安納托利亞,還有一次是在中國的湄公河流域。兩次的時間均發生在9000年以前。他們傳入歐洲的時間大約是在7500年前。

For this study, researchers focused on European pigs. They evaluated more than 600 genomes from European and Asian wild boars and domesticated pigs. And they found that, in Europe, the story of a bottleneck separating domestic from wild animals does not fit the genetic data.
這次研究,研究者們選擇了歐洲豬。他們分析了600多個歐洲和亞洲野生豬和馴化豬的基因組。之後研究者發現,在歐洲,這個講述野生動物和家畜分離的遺傳瓶頸故事與基因資料並不相符。

Rather, the model that does fit indicates that there was a frequent flow of genes from wild European boars into the domestic population. In other words, boars and pigs kept finding ways to get together. The most likely scenario for the development of the modern pig genome includes gene flow from some species of European wild boars that are now extinct. But their genes live on, on the farm. The research is in the journal Nature Genetics.
不如這樣說,吻合的模型表明有一股基因流頻繁從歐洲的野生豬進入到家養的豬群中。換句話說,野豬和家豬之間一直在尋找保持一致的方法。對於現在豬基因組發 展最有可能的情景一些已經現在野生豬身上已經消失的基因組流傳如了家豬的體內。不過他們的基因在農場種保留了下來。該研究結果發表在《自然遺傳學》雜誌 上。

The authors hope this study will prompt the use of genetics to evaluate the domestication history for other species, including dogs and horses. They say the incorporation of contemporary and ancient DNA into these modeling scenarios will help elucidate the timing of the domestication of plants and animals and, “ultimately substantially enhance knowledge of this fascinating evolutionary process.”
作者希望這項研究能夠促進使用遺傳資料來測評其他物種的馴化歷史,例如狗和貓。研究者稱在建模情景中包含現在和古代的DNA 會有助於闡明植物和動物的馴化時間,“最終大量增加這些吸引人的進化過程的知識。”

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