今日主題:Seed-Scattering Birds May Help Trees Cope with Climate Change 鳥類是樹木的朋友

洪欣老師推薦:托福聽力最好的課外教材:60-Second Science

1. 先聽兩三遍 (不看文稿)
2. 再一句一句聽寫 (每句都要聽寫數遍,直到寫出85%以上的字)
3. 最後check文稿,看哪聽不出來,單字沒背過,還是發音不熟。
4. 堅持天天聽,就能每天進步哦。

MP3音檔 (按右鍵可下載聽):喜歡的同學,幫忙推或按讚哦~~


The tree people in the Lord of the Rings—the Ents—can get around by walking. But for real trees, well, it's harder to uproot. "Because it's a sessile organism, literally, rooted into the ground, it is unable to leave and go elsewhere." Mario Pesendorfer, a behavioral ecologist at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. "When a tree first starts growing in a certain area, it's likely that the climatic envelope, so the temperature, humidity, soil composition and so on suits it, because it would otherwise be unable to grow from a seedling. But as it ages, these conditions may change and the area around it may no longer be suitable for its offspring."
魔戒裡面的樹人——Ents家族——可以四處遊走。但是對於真的樹來講,把根拔出來還是比較困難的一件事兒。因為樹木是一種生長固定的有機體,紮根於土 壤,不能離開生長的地方。Mario Presendorfer 是康奈爾實驗室的一名行為生態學家。他還說到:“種子在最初開始生長的時候,它生長的領域就像一個氣候外殼,那裡的溫度、濕度、土壤成分等等都適應種子的 生長,否則的話,種子就無法成長為幼苗。但是隨著時間的推移,這些條件可能會改變,周圍的環境也不再適合它的子孫後代了。”

And if that happens? Walnuts, hazelnuts, chestnuts, oaks, pines—many rely exclusively on so-called "scatter-hoarders," like birds, to move their hefty seeds to new locales. "Many members of the family Corvidae—the crows, jays and magpies—are scatter-hoarders. Meaning they like to store food for the winter, which they then subsequently retrieve."

Or not. And when they do forget something, a seedling has a chance to grow, sometimes a good distance away. "The Clark's nutcracker, which is found in alpine regions of western North America, is definitely the rock star among the scatter-hoarding corvids. They hide up to 100,000 seeds per year, up to 30 kilometers away from the seed source, and have a very close symbiotic relationship with several pine species, most notably the whitebark pine.”
或許就翻不出來了。當動物們忘記了這些事物的時候,種子就有機會長大了,而這時,有的種子已經被帶到很遠的地方了。“在西北美的阿爾卑斯地區發現的克氏星 鴉,就是分散儲藏能手鴉科類中的高手。它們每年要藏的種子類食物能達到100000個,最遠的儲藏地距種子源達30公里。克氏星鴉與許多松科樹木都有非常 緊密的共生關係,其中最著名的要數白皮松。”

Pesendorfer and his colleagues catalogue the seed-scattering activities of the Clark's nutcracker and its cousins in a new review paper, in the journal The Condor: Ornithological Applications. They also write that, as trees outgrow their ideal habitats in the face of climate change, or battle new insects and disease, these flying ecosystem engineers could be a big help replanting trees. It's a solution, Pesendorfer says, that's good for us—getting birds to do the work is cheap and effective— and it could give vulnerable oaks and pines the option to truly "make like a tree and leave."
Pesendofer和同事們在一篇最新的綜述文章中分類記載了克氏星鴉和其親屬的種子存儲活動,該篇文章發表在《神鷹:鳥類應用》雜誌上。他們還寫道, 當樹木面臨氣候變化或者抗擊新型昆蟲騷擾或者疾病侵襲而不得不放棄它們的理想棲息地時,它們這些飛行的生態系統工程師對於重新植樹能有巨大的幫助。這也是 一種辦法,Pesendorfer說,對我們來講是個好辦法——可以經濟有效的幫助這些鳥類——這還能給脆弱的橡樹以及松樹機會“像一棵樹--離開”。


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