Mosquito  

今日主題:Viruses Hijack The Body's Response To Mosquito Bites
被蚊蟲叮咬的嚴重後果

洪欣老師推薦:托福聽力最好的課外教材:60-Second Science
康康精選托福會考的主題,堅持每天精聽一定會進步的哦!!

建議方法:
1. 先聽兩三遍 (不看文稿)
2. 再一句一句聽寫 (每句都要聽寫數遍,直到寫出85%以上的字)
3. 最後check文稿,看哪聽不出來,單字沒背過,還是發音不熟。
4. 堅持天天聽,就能每天進步哦。

MP3音檔 (按右鍵可下載聽):喜歡的同學,幫忙推或按讚哦~~
http://online1.tingclass.net/voa…/2016/20160627sa_health.mp3

只有音檔怎夠,聽不懂地方,不用怕,康康幫你準備好中英文稿了:

中英文稿:
Chances are, you've had the opportunity to study firsthand the swollen, itchy welt left by a mosquito bite. And now—scientists have too.
很有可能,你會有機會研究有關腫脹的第一手資料——被蚊蟲叮咬後留下的癢痕。現在,科學家們不得不對其進行研究。

"Well, we haven't studied itching yet in our laboratory studies." Clive McKimmie, an immunologist at the University of Leeds, in England. "What we've shown is the inflammation associated with bites is not good for you as a host, and it gives a virus an advantage."
“我們還從未在實驗室研究過癢痕!”英國里茲大學的免疫學家Clive McKimmie說道。“我們已經證明,作為宿主,叮咬誘發的相關炎症有害於你的身體健康。”它為病毒創造了優勢。

To understand why, let’s back up. To mosquito spit. "Now I know it's a little disgusting to think about, but when a mosquito bites you, they're spitting out quite a bit of saliva into your skin." That saliva can contain viruses, like zika or chikungunya. And viruses—and the tissue damage from the bite—are a rallying cry for the immune system.
為瞭解其中原因,讓我們回到這兒,蚊子的唾液。我知道現在思考這些有點兒噁心。當蚊子叮咬你時,它們會吐出相當多的唾液到你的皮膚。唾液中可含有病毒,如zike病毒或基孔肯亞病。並且病毒——以及叮咬所導致的組織損傷——對免疫系統而言是一個戰鬥口號。

McKimmie and his colleagues studied that immune response in mice. And they found that when immune cells show up at the bite the viruses infect them, and turn those immune cells into factories for further virus replication.
McKimmie和他的同事研究了小鼠的免疫反應。並且他們發現,當被蚊蟲叮咬時,免疫細胞就會出現,這時病毒就會感染這些免疫細胞,並把這些免疫細胞納入自己的“工廠”, 進一步複製病毒。

"Your own immune system, which is meant to help your body defend itself against infection, seems to be inadvertently promoting an aspect of a virus infection."
“你自身的免疫系統,其目的在於説明保護你的身體免受感染,但似乎在不經意間促進了病毒感染的一個方面。”

Overall, the inflammation resulted in 10 times more virus in the mice, compared to being inoculated with the virus without a bite. The study is in the journal Immunity. [Marieke Pingen et al., Host Inflammatory Response to Mosquito Bites Enhances the Severity of Arbovirus Infection]
與被接種病毒、沒有被叮咬的小鼠相比,炎症導致的病毒要比其多十倍之多。這項研究發表在《免疫》雜誌上。

More viruses means a higher chance they'll infect your organs—and other mosquitoes too. So McKimmie says it might be worth testing a cheap anti-inflammatory—like a topical ibuprofen cream—to see if it cuts virus numbers. "You've got to remember that these infections tend to be present in parts of the world that are economically deprived. And so we can't come up with an expensive new medication, because it's unlikely to be appropriate for that situation."
病毒越多意味著感染你器官的機會就越大。並且其他蚊子也是這樣。因此,McKimmie表示測試出一種廉價抗炎藥是非常值得的。就像局部布洛芬乳膏——檢 測它是否能夠減少病毒數量。“你要記住,這些感染往往出現在那些經濟貧困的世界各地。因此我們不能研製昂貴的新藥物,因為這不太可能適應目前的情形。

The real beauty of this topical treatment approach, though—if it works—is its versatility: it zeroes in not on a specific disease, but that one thing they all have in common: the bite.
這種局部治療方法的真正美妙之處——如果它起作用——在於它的多功能性:它屬於專門研究,但不是針對某一種特定的疾病,但是它們都有一個共同點:叮咬。

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