160214影響第一印象的兩個關鍵因素.jpg  

➼The two key things people judge you on when they first meet you
When you meet someone for the first time, do you put across a good impression? And what do we mean by 'good' in this context?
與人第一次見面時,你能給人留下一個好印象嗎?在這裡我們所謂的“好”又指的是什麼呢?
  
➼According to Presence, a new book by Harvard Business School professor Amy Cuddy, people assess you on two main criteria when they first meet you:
哈佛商學院教授艾米·庫迪的新書《存在》 ,談到了影響第一印象的兩個主要評判標準:
1. Can I trust this person?
他(她)值得我信賴嗎?
2. Can I respect this person?
他(她)值得我尊重嗎?
  
➼You level of trustworthiness, or warmth, is the most important factor in how people initially perceive you, Cuddy says - yet many mistakenly believe that the second factor, characterised as competence, is more important.
庫迪說,可信度(或者說親近感)是影響人們第一印象最重要的因素。但許多人錯誤的認為第二個因素——能力——才更重要。
➼"From an evolutionary perspective,” Cuddy writes, “it is more crucial to our survival to know whether a person deserves our trust.”
庫迪在書中寫道:“從進化的角度看,知曉一個人是否值得我們信任,對我們的生存更為重要。”
  
➼While displaying competence is certainly beneficial, particularly in a work setting, Cuddy warns that focusing on winning people's respect, while failing to win their trust, can backfire - a common problem for young professionals attempting to make a good impression early on in their careers.
向別人展示能力當然會對我們有好處,尤其是在工作場合。但庫迪提醒大家,只顧贏得別人的尊重而忽視贏得別人的信任,可能會適得其反。想要在事業早期給別人留下好印象的職場新人,普遍存在這個問題。
➼"If someone you're trying to influence doesn't trust you, you're not going to get very far; in fact, you might even elicit suspicion because you come across as manipulative," Cuddy says.
庫迪說:“如果你嘗試去影響的人並不信任你,那麼你是走不了很遠的;事實上,因為你給別人留下了控制欲強的印象,他們反而對你有疑慮。”
  
➼"A warm, trustworthy person who is also strong elicits admiration, but only after you've established trust does your strength become a gift rather than a threat."
一個平易近人、值得信任,同時能力又強的人,才會讓人心生敬佩。不過,只有在你們之間建立了信任後,你的能力才會變成一種優點,而不是一種威脅。
➼In Cuddy's book she also explains some of the science that can help you spot a liar.
庫迪在書中也提供了一些科學理論,可以幫你識別撒謊的人。
  
➼When a person is lying there is likely to be discrepancies between what they are saying and what they are doing, she suggests.
她表示,一個人在說謊時,他的言行可能會有不一致的地方。
➼“Lying is hard work," she writes. “We're telling one story while suppressing another, and most of us are experiencing psychological guilt about doing this, which we're also trying suppress. We just don't have the brainpower to manage it all without letting something go - without 'leaking’.”
她寫道:“說謊並非易事,編造謊言的同時也意味著隱瞞另一個事實,大多數人還會因撒謊而心生愧疚,並試圖掩蓋愧疚。我們人類的腦力還沒有強大到可以在撒謊時做到天衣無縫——即不讓自己“露餡”。
  
➼The author adds that these ‘leaks’ can be seen in a person displaying conflicting emotions, like a happy tone of voice paired with an angry facial expression.
作者補充說,如果一個人表達的情感產生了衝突——比如語調是歡快的,但同時呈現的面部表情卻是憤怒的——最容易被人抓住撒謊的漏洞。
➼“It’s about how well or poorly our multiple channels of communication — facial expressions, posture, movement, vocal qualities, speech – co-operate,” she adds.
她還說,這跟我們與人交流時,對身體協調能力的掌控有關:包括面部表情、姿勢、動作、音質以及說話方式。
  
➼Professor Cuddy argues that most of us are not very good at spotting a liaras we are distracted by the words coming out of their mouth.
庫迪教授說,大多數人並不善於識別說謊者,因為我們可能會被他們的言語分散注意力。
➼“When we’re consciously looking for signs of deception or truth, we pay too much attention to words and not enough to the nonverbal gestalt of what’s going on,” the professor adds. “Truth reveals itself more clearly through actions than it does through our words.
她補充說:“當我們小心翼翼找尋謊言或事實的跡象時,我們往往會過分關注說話人的言語,而忽視與之同時出現的肢體語言。肢體動作比言語更能揭示出事實真相。”


文章來源:哈佛教授:影響第一印象的兩個關鍵因素

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