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【雅思寫作中常用卻容易出錯的句子】

 

因果關係是在英文寫作時最常用到的一種邏輯關係,然而表現因果關係的句子也最容易出現文法、修辭的錯誤。我們就來分析一下表示因果關係的句子中容易犯的錯誤,以及怎樣才是符合文法、修辭要求的作法。我們用三個例子來進行總結:

 

舉例一:

 

The reason whyhe wouldn't go to the wedding is because the bride was once his girlfriend.

這個句子的文法修辭問題不止一處。首先,the reason why 同樣表示原因,因此可省去關係詞why,或者以連接詞that 取代,成為:

The reason (that) he wouldn't go to the wedding is because the bride was once his girlfriend.

但這樣修改之後仍不理想,原因之一是the reason because 仍然重複表達原因,應再精簡。如果把the reason去掉,成為:

He wouldn't go to the wedding is because the bride was once his girlfriend.

如此雖然解決了重複的問題,可是仍不理想,主要是because the bride was once his girlfriend 這個子句卻在be動詞後面作主語補語使用,這是文法上的錯誤。亦即,because 引導的副詞子句不應該放在be動詞後面的補語位置,前者為果、後者為因的“因果關係”。

 

要表達這種關係,最直截了當地改為:

He wouldn't go to the wedding because the bride was once his girlfriend.

或者:

The reason he wouldn't go to the wedding is that the bride was once his girlfriend.

比較這兩句,可發現前者比較簡潔,這是它的優點。後者雖然字數較多,可是能夠發揮加強預期的功能(強調他不去的原因何在)。既然有特殊的修辭功能,就不能說是冗長,因而也是一個可能的選擇。

 

舉例二:

 

The electric car is not yet a practical alternative to the gasoline car, the reason being that there are not many charging stations around.

這個句子中,the reason being that... because the reason is that 的簡化,它的主語the reason 與主要子句主詞the electric car 不同,所以在簡化時要保留。這種處理方式在文法上是正確的,然而從修辭上來看,the reason being that...稍顯冗長,不如改為because 比較簡潔:

The electric car is not yet a practical alter native to the gasoline car, (the reason being) because there are not many charging stations around.

 

舉例三:

The crop failed due to excessive rain in the final weeks before harvest.

這個句子不佳,因為詞類有錯誤。Due的詞類是形容詞,而英文的形容詞是用來修飾名詞的,只有兩種位置可以使用:

 

1. 名詞詞組中,例如in due time(到了恰當的時間);

2. 補語位置,例如The books are due.(書到期該換了)

 

在上面的句子中,用形容詞詞組due to... 來修飾動詞failed 的原因,是誤把形容詞當副詞用,屬於文法錯誤。可以這樣改:

The crop failed was due to excessive rain in the final weeks before harvest.

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