1、舉例子/Giving examples


常用的就是for examplefor instancenamely,用在解釋、表達“也就是說”、“換言之”的意思,作插入語多。

例:There are two problems: namely , the expense and the time.


2、增加信息/Adding information


AndIn additionAs well asAlsoToofurthermoreMoreoverApart fromIn addition toBesides



例:We discussed training, education and the budget.



例:We also spoke about marketing.

You can use also with not only to give emphasis.

We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition.


As well as】用法:可以用於句首或者中間。

例:As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition.

We are interested in costs as well as the competition.


Apart from】和【besides】的用法:常用於表達as well asin addition to的意思。

例:Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer.

Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer.


Moreover】和【further more】的用法:為你要表達的事物增加另一個信息點。

例:Marketing plans give us an idea of​​ the potential market. Moreover , they tell us about the competition .




In shortIn briefIn summaryTo summarizeIn a nutshellTo concludeIn conclusion,常用這些字彙在寫作和口說中表示總結。注意:In a nutshell是非正式表達,經常用於口語而非寫作。


4. 強化觀點間聯繫/ Sequencing ideas


The former、… the latterFirstlysecondlyfinallyThe first point isLastlyThe following

例:Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term.


Firstly、… secondly、… finally (or lastly ) 在陳列信息時很有用,The following作為下一段陳述的開頭居多。

例:The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen.


5. 給出結果時/Giving a result


ThereforeConsequentlyAs a result

例:The companies are expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result , they are taking on extra staff.


6. 表示比較、轉折、讓步等時/Contrasting ideas


ButHoweveralthough / evenIn theory inpractice…、NonethelessWhile WhereasDespite / despite the fact thatIn spite of / in spite of the fact that Nevertheless



例:He works hard, but he doesn't earn much.

He works hard. However , he doesn't earn much



例:While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown.

Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down.

Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol.


Although】、【despite】和【in spite of】的用法:多用於讓步。

例:Although it was cold, she went out in shorts.

In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts.


Nevertheless】和【nonetheless】的用法:in spite of that or anyway的意思。

例:The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless . (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)

The company is doing well. Nonetheless , they aren't going to expand this year.


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