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今日主題:Humans and Birds Cooperate to Share Beehive Bounty / 響蜜鴷和獵蜜人的互動

洪欣老師推薦:托福聽力最好的課外教材:60-Second Science

康康精選托福會考的主題,堅持每天精聽一定會進步的哦!!

建議方法:
1.
先聽兩三遍 (不看文稿)
2.
再一句一句聽寫 (每句都要聽寫數遍,直到寫出85%以上的字)
3.
最後check文稿,看哪聽不出來,單字沒背過,還是發音不熟。
4.
堅持天天聽,就能每天進步哦。

MP3音檔 (按右鍵可下載聽):喜歡的同學,幫忙推或按讚哦~~
http://online1.tingclass.net/voas…/2016/20160822sa_earth.mp3

只有音檔怎夠,聽不懂地方,不用怕,康康幫你準備好中英文稿了:

中英文稿:
This is a story about the birds and the bees. When the Yao people of Mozambique want to find beehives full of honey they make this noise [brrrr-hm]. That sound attracts the attention of what are appropriately called honey guide birds.
這是關於鳥和蜜蜂的故事。當莫三比克的瑤族人民想要找到裝滿蜂蜜的蜂巢時,他們就會發出這樣的聲音。這種聲音就會吸引可以被稱作蜂蜜指引的鳥類。


“If you ask Yao honey-hunters why they go brrrr-hm when they’re looking for a honeyguide, they’ll tell you, well, it’s the best way to attract a honeyguide and to maintain its attention while you’re following it to a bees’ nest.”
如果你詢問瑤族尋蜜人,為什麼在尋找蜂蜜指導鳥類時,會發生那樣的聲音。他們會告訴你,這是吸引這種鳥類最好的方法,追尋這種鳥,你就會找到蜂巢。


Claire Spottiswoode, of the University of Cambridge in England and the University of Cape Town in South Africa.
克雷爾斯波蒂斯伍德來自于英國劍橋大學和南非開普敦大學。


The Yao have long known that they could attract honeyguides vocally, as part of a rare example of a mutualistic relationship between people and wild animals. The humans get honey and the birds then get what they want—the previously unattainable wax of the beehive, which they consider a delicacy. Spottiswoode’s study provides evidence that the humans are actually communicating with the birds.
作為一個罕見的例子,瑤族人和野生動物之間這種互惠的關係,長久以來,瑤族人們就知道利用聲音來吸引這種鳥類。人類獲得蜂蜜,而鳥類也獲得需要所需之物——之前無法獲得的蜂窩中的臘,這種鳥類將其視為珍寶。斯波蒂斯伍德的研究為人類實際上可以與鳥類交流提供了證據。


“We wanted to specifically test whether honeyguides responded to the exact information content of the brrrr-hm call, which signals, if you wish, ‘I’m looking for bees’ nests,’ so we wanted to distinguish that from the alternative that the call simply alerts honeyguides to the presence of humans.”
明確地說,我們想要測試這種鳥類使否會回應人類發生聲響中的資訊,這種資訊所傳達的信號是我在尋找蜜蜂的巢穴,我們想要區分這種聲音和另外一種聲音——用以警示人類的存在。


Which the research team did—birds were much more likely to respond to brrrr-hm than to other sounds. The study is in the journal Science.
研究團隊發現,與其他的聲音相比,鳥類對第一種聲音的回應較多。該研究結果發表在《科學》雜誌上。


Honeyguides may help people, but to other birds they can be monsters.
響蜜鴷對人類有益,但是對於其他鳥類來說,響蜜鴷則如猛獸一般。


“Honeyguides are the real Jekyll and Hyde of the bird world…like cowbirds or cuckoos, honeyguides are brood parasites—they lay their eggs in other birds’ nests and exploit the care of other species to raise their young. And their chicks hatch with these very sharp hooks at the tips of their beak, which they use to stab the host young to death as soon as they hatch.”
響蜜鴷是鳥類中的雙重性格的鳥類,如燕八哥火杜鵑,響蜜鴷是巢內寄生體——它們在其他鳥類的巢穴中產蛋,然後利用其他物種撫育自己的孩子。同時響蜜鴷的幼崽喙部尖端呈鉤狀,一旦寄主的幼鳥孵化,這些響蜜鴷的幼崽就會用尖尖的嘴將其啄死。


You can watch some of this horror-movie-worthy footage that Spottiswoode captured several years ago by googling the phrase “honeyguide murder.”
在數年前斯波蒂斯伍德捕捉了數個類似的恐怖鏡頭,你可以通過網路檢索短語響蜜鴷謀殺進行觀看。


As Africa becomes more urbanized, fewer people are engaging the birds to help them find honey. And the relationship between honeyguides and honey-hunters may be fraying.
隨著南非愈加城市化,越來越少的人依賴響蜜鴷來尋找蜂蜜。因此,響蜜鴷和獵蜜人之間的這種關係將會受到損害。


“A young honeyguide hatches in the nest of another species knowing how to be a honeyguide. Because it doesn’t have the opportunity to learn from its own parents. But then if that’s not reinforced by experience, it’s lost.”
在其他鳥巢中得以孵化的幼小的響蜜鴷知道如何尋找蜂蜜。即使不能從父母那裡習得這門本領。但是,若這種技能沒有經驗的強化,也會失傳。


In the not-too-distant future then, honeyguides may still know where the beehives are—but they’ll be keeping that information to themselves.
在不遠的將來,響蜜鴷可能也知道哪裡有蜂巢——但是,它們自己將會保守這個秘密。

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