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今日主題:Ornithological trends-- This bird has flown
英國鳥類遷徙趨勢有所改變

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中英文稿:
Ornithological trends-- This bird has flown
英國鳥類遷徙趨勢有所改變

Why some species are thriving outside southern England
為什麼英格蘭南部有些物種開始興盛?

WHEN people talk about a “north-south divide” in Britain they are usually referring to house prices, employment and the ratio of private-sector to public-sector jobs. The south scores higher on all such measures. But new data from the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), a research charity, hints at the growth of another north-south divide—this time to the north's benefit.
在英國,當人們提到“南北分歧”的時候,他們通常指的是房價、就業和私企與國企就業率之比。在所有類似的測量標準中,英國南部地區的資料較高。但慈善研究機構英國鳥類研究信託公司提供的新資料表明,在另一種形式增大的南北分歧中,北部地方獲益較大。

Every 20 years the BTO produces a superbly detailed atlas of bird life in Britain and Ireland. The 2007 to 2011 edition is cheery: more species are tallied than in previous atlases, and many birds are increasing in number. Compared with two decades ago, 45% of regular native species are ranging more widely while 32% are living in smaller areas; the rest have stayed put. But the most striking news comes from the north.
每隔20年,英國鳥類研究信託公司都會公佈一組有關英國和愛爾蘭的鳥類生活詳細地圖分佈冊。2007-2011年的地圖分佈冊顯示的資料令人振奮:與前幾 年相比,記載了更多的物種;許多鳥類數量也有所增加。與20年前相比,45%的常規本地物種活動範圍擴大,32%生活範圍縮小;剩餘的物種保持穩定。此 外,最令人驚喜的消息從北部地方傳來。

The overall populations of woodland, farmland and migrant perching birds are up in northern England and Scotland but down in the south. The same is true of individual species such as the garden warbler, bullfinch and swallow. The number of cuckoos, a closely-watched species, declined by 63% in England between 1995 and 2010 but by only 5% in Scotland. Raptors are faring especially well in the south, but their numbers are rising in most parts of Britain.
林地、農田和中途停留的遷徙鳥類數量在英格蘭北部和蘇格蘭有所上升,但是在南部地區卻有所下降。相同的情況也適用於個別物種,如園林鶯、紅腹灰雀、燕子。 常見的物種之一杜鵑的數量,從1995年到2010年下降了65%,但在蘇格蘭地區僅下降了5%。南部地區的猛禽在南方生活的尤其滋潤,其數量在英國大部 分地區都有所上升。

Partly this reflects climate change, suggests Simon Gillings of the BTO. Some birds are drawn to warmer winters in Scotland and northern England; visiting migrants may stick around for longer. Hard though it may be to believe during a week of torrential rain, the south is becoming drier, pushing snipe northward. More efficient farming has squeezed some farmland species.
英國鳥類研究信託公司的西蒙•格林斯認為這部分反映了氣候變化。有些鳥類遷往蘇格蘭和英格蘭北部等冬天較為溫暖的地方;旅鳥停留的時間可能會更長。我們很 難相信在一周的強降雨之後,南部地區變得更加乾燥,使得物種向北部遷移。高效率的農耕方式也使得一些農田物種的數量降低。

Some birds find it harder to make homes in the south, too. Pressure on housing means dilapidated buildings and barns, handy for nesting, have been converted into human dwellings. Between 2006 and 2012 the number of vacant dwellings fell by 17% in London and by 12% in Kent. Over the same period the number of empty houses increased by 16% in Derbyshire and by 10% in Lancashire. Northern mining villages once full of workers are now sparsely populated, points out Ian Bartlett, a birdwatcher in Hartlepool, in north-east England. They have become hot spots for birds and the people who watch them.
有些鳥類也發覺在南部地區繁衍更為艱難。以往適宜築巢的荒廢建築物、穀倉都被人們的住房所佔領。2006年至2012年,倫敦的房屋空置率下降了17%, 肯特郡的下降12%。同一時期,德比郡的房屋空置率上升16%,而蘭開郡的上升10%。哈特爾普爾的鳥類觀察員蘭•巴特勒稱,位於英格蘭東北部的北部採礦 型鄉村曾一度人滿為患,現在人煙稀少。

Cultural difference also plays a part, thinks Mark Cocker, an expert on birds. The “obsession with tidiness” is stronger in the south, he says. Fewer people cultivate gardens; they prefer to cover them in decking and remove weeds from between concrete slabs. Village greens are mowed short. In contrast, Scotland and northern England have more trees, grassland and wind-swept moors. Less popular with humans, rugged parts of the countryside are filling up with a winged population instead.
鳥類專家馬克•科克爾認為,文化差異也起了一定的作用。他表示,南部地區的人們“癡迷於整潔”的表現更為強烈。很少有人整理花園,他們更喜歡在花園裝飾木 甲板,在堅硬的石板中間除草。村莊草地也經常修剪得整整齊齊。相反,蘇格蘭和英格蘭北部地方擁有更多的樹林、草地和荒涼的沼澤地。很多崎嶇的鄉村人煙稀 少,而鳥類卻在此紮根,欣欣向榮。

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