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今天來分享一篇上週最難的一篇講座,
第一個SECTION的藝術史講座,講的話題是觀念藝術(conceptual art)
是的,觀念藝術,極其抽象的話題,也很少提到,更何況很多考生沒有聽懂這個單詞:conceptual,所以從頭到尾就只是「C藝術」而已。


我們來看看這篇聽力講座開頭對觀念藝術的定義:

One of the main ideas conceptual artists explored was what makes art art. Remember conceptual artists rejected traditional notions of art, rejected that only paintings or sculptures could be considered art and that all art has to be beautiful to look at. Instead art was an idea itself rather than a physical manifestation of an idea. And that idea made you think, then work was successful. Typically nontraditional mediums were used, like video or photography.

這段定義很抽象,但有沒有注意到上面這段話裡,有一個標紅單詞出現的很頻繁:idea,這就是觀念藝術所追求的「觀念」,也是這篇講座第二題的答案。
2. What main goal of Conceptual Art does the professor mention?
Art should invite analysis of ideas.

接下來教授舉了觀念藝術早期的一幅作品,Joseph Kosuth's One and Three Chairs(下圖)。

Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs (1965)

左邊牆上畫了一把椅子,中間地上擺了一把椅子,右邊牆上是椅子在字典裡的定義。這是為了提醒人們椅子以三種形式存在,這個觀念就是藝術作品,與椅子是否沒毫無關係,而是來自於對椅子存在的多種形式的思考。教授在介紹完這幅作品之後,說了一句意味深長的話:So good for Kosuth。這句話成了第三題的答案。
3. What is the professor's attitude toward Kosuth's work entitled One and Three Chairs?
He thinks that the work achieves the main aim of Conceptual Art.

在介紹完Kosuth的作品之後,教授說觀念藝術其實剛開始也並不為大眾(public)和評論家(critic)所接受,而真正讓這個藝術運動流行的人正是今天講座的話題,我們看原文:
Well today I like to focus on one conceptual artist whose work was very well received. Because unlike other conceptual artists, his work is immediately accessible. That artist is William Wegman. His earliest works were mainly clever, amusing, often observed short videos of himself that addressed intellectually complex ideas from an unusual angle. For example, he videotaped himself humorously imitating a television commercial . . . . . . Wegman began using May Ray in his short videos which brought an additional highly appealing and accessible element into the absurd angle of his videos. Man Ray added affection, sweetness and because of that Wegman and Man Ray became famous. For example, in a video entitled spelling lesson . . . . . .

教授說今天主要講的藝術家是Wegman,他的作品聰明有趣,容易被大眾接受,而且經常自拍一些錄像,以非尋常角度解決智力複雜(intellectually complex)的觀念,舉例拍除臭劑(deodorant)的廣告,足足在身上噴了一分鐘,然後說好有用啊,其實是諷刺,引起了很多老百姓共鳴。另外,教授說Wegman在錄像裡使用了May Ray(這是一隻狗狗的名字)以增加吸引力。May Ray帶來了什麼效果呢?喜歡(affection),甜蜜(sweetness)。然後教授舉例,有一個錄像,Wegman給May Ray糾正拼寫錯誤,教它讀,讀的很古怪,而且最後狗狗還道歉了。

各位看看下一道題的難度在哪兒,就是兩個例子支撐的東西是不可以混淆的,但是,多少人在這裡的細節完全沒聽懂,根本沒有混淆的可能。
4. In what way Wegman's video Spelling Lesson a departure from his earliest videos?
It included endearing displays of tenderness.

接下來教授說Wegman的一生當中拍了很多在人類場景中的May Ray,而且還用到道具(prop),還會穿人的衣服。Wegman這樣做的目的是想質問:到底哪個更古怪(weirder)?是穿著人衣的狗(Dogs dressed up and playing the part of humans)?還是人類生活的古怪世界(strange world that humans actually play in everyday life)?其實Wegman是在諷刺人類啊,所以下一道題。
5. According to the professor, what is one idea that Wegman tried to convey in his photographs of dogs dressed in human clothing?
Humans are involved in situations that can be considered strange.

除了諷刺人類,Wegman還諷刺風景畫(landscape painting)。他拍了一張照片,名字叫湖岸(Lakeshore)。

William Wegman Lake Shore, 1999

遠看像一幅風景畫,森林,天空,湖泊,海岸。但如果湊近一看,那些看似巨石(boulder)的海岸線(shoreline),實際是只不過是狗狗們的頭(heads),背(backs)和腿(legs)啊。
6.According to the professor, what is one way that Wegman questioned the conventions of traditional landscape paintings in Lake Shore?
Wegman represented rocks with images of the various body parts of dogs.

聽講完,你是否覺得這是一篇值得你跪的講座。另外,想提醒你,別忘了,還有第一題沒有選,這是一道需要高度概括的主旨題。在這篇講座裡,教授介紹了觀念藝術運動,介紹了Kosuth拍的三把椅子照片,Wegman的除臭劑廣告錄像,糾正狗狗拼寫錄像,還有諷刺傳統風景畫的狗狗海岸照片。
1. What is the main purpose of the lecture?
To describe works of Conceptual Art that gained wide acceptance

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